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'Lodging' occurs when an ear stalk falls over in the wind and rots on the ground, and heavy nitrogenous fertilization of wheat makes the grass grow taller and become more susceptible to this problem. Of these about 1,000 are commercially significant. Vincent Van Gogh In Turkey we have large wheat fields in Konya just in the middle of the country. [119], There are substantial differences in wheat farming, trading, policy, sector growth, and wheat uses in different regions of the world. Number of Mills: 19 Thus technological innovation and scientific crop management with synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation and wheat breeding were the main drivers of wheat output growth in the second half of the century. The yellowish color of durum wheat and, Seed-borne diseases: these include seed-borne scab, seed-borne, Aparicio, Gema, and Vicente Pinilla. Wheat Production Map. "Peak Natural Gas is On the Way". [22], The cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. [113], In the 20th century, global wheat output expanded by about 5-fold, but until about 1955 most of this reflected increases in wheat crop area, with lesser (about 20%) increases in crop yields per unit area. [citation needed] If the raw wheat is broken into parts at the mill, as is usually done, the outer husk or bran can be used several ways, Wheat is a major ingredient in such foods as bread, porridge, crackers, biscuits, muesli, pancakes, pasta and noodles, pies, pastries, pizza, polenta and semolina, cakes, cookies, muffins, rolls, doughnuts, gravy, beer, vodka, boza (a fermented beverage), and breakfast cereals. Wheat buyers use these to decide which wheat to buy, as each class has special uses, and producers use them to decide which classes of wheat will be most profitable to cultivate. ", Jon Markman, March 6, 2008 at, Andrew McKillop (2006-12-13). Various studies in India, for example, have concluded that about 10% of total wheat production is lost at farm level, another 10% is lost because of poor storage and road networks, and additional amounts lost at the retail level. This produced triticale, a grain with high potential, but fraught with problems relating to fertility and germination. In the US, wheat is mostly grown in the prairie states: Kansas ,North and South Dakota and Minnesota. Harvest continues through September depending on where the wheat is grown. When the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. On threshing, the chaff breaks up, releasing the grains. This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Wheat", which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). [17] Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but simply have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier; nevertheless such 'incidental' selection was an important part of crop domestication. Acres: 4,562,307 (2017 NASS) In tropical areas, spot blotch (also known as Helminthosporium leaf blight) is also important. [16] In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets. These have mostly been solved, so that in the 20th century millions of acres of triticale are being grown worldwide. Agcapita Farmland Investment Partnership - Peak oil v. Peak Wheat, July 1, 2008, Credit Suisse First Boston, Higher Agricultural Prices: Opportunities and Risks, November 2007, Food Production May Have to Double by 2030 - Western Spectator, Learn how and when to remove this template message, International wheat production statistics, "Crops/World Total/Wheat/Area Harvested/2014 (pick list)", "World food situation: FAO cereal supply and demand brief", "Crops/World Total/Wheat/Production Quantity/2014 (pick list)", "Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people", "Review: The contribution of wheat to human diet and health", Community Research and Development Information Service, "Genetic markers signal increased crop productivity potential", "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms", "μCT trait analysis reveals morphometric differences between domesticated temperate small grain cereals and their wild relatives". G raw sweet potato [7][9], The average annual world farm yield for wheat in 2014 was 3.3 tonnes per hectare (330 grams per square meter). [25][26][27] About two millennia later it reached China. [14][80] Though they contain adequate amounts of the other essential amino acids, at least for adults, wheat proteins are deficient in the essential amino acid, lysine. [98], While coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as a wheat allergy. [7][8] Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. It spread from its place of origin into Central Europe and into China, where it has been grown for perhaps 5,000 years. [60] However, a 2020 study that grew and analyzed 60 wheat cultivars from between 1891 and 2010 found no changes in albumin/globulin and gluten contents over time. These animals can cause significant damage to a crop by digging up and eating newly planted seeds or young plants. 207–21, "AFLP analysis of a collection of tetraploid wheats indicates the origin of emmer and hard wheat domestication in southeast Turkey", "Britons may have imported wheat long before farming it", "Ancient genomes indicate population replacement in Early Neolithic Britain", "Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agricultur", "The science in detail – Wheats DNA – Research – Archaeology – The University of Sheffield", Fertilising for High Yield and Quality - Cereals, "Shifts in stomatal traits following the domestication of plant species", "Labeling of Fructans in Winter Wheat Stems", "Wheat genotypic variation in dynamic fluxes of WSC components in different stem segments under drought during grain filling", "Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat", "Decline in climate resilience of European wheat", Guinness World Records - Highest Wheat Yield, Farmers Weekly - Lincs grower scoops top wheat and rapeseed yield awards, Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board - 2018 GB Harvest Progress Results, "Plant genetic resources: What can they contribute toward increased crop productivity? Wheat is grown in all areas of Virginia. [109] Some information providers, following CBOT practice, quote the wheat market in per ton denomination. [10], Note: All nutrient values including protein and fiber are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Biological Control News Volume II, Number 10 October 1995, CSIRO Rodent Management Research Focus: Mice plagues, "ARS, Industry Cooperation Yields Device to Detect Insects in Stored Wheat", Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wheat&oldid=993775542, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Citizendium, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Grain color (red, white or amber). Selections are identified (shown to have the genes responsible for the varietal differences) ten or more generations before release as a variety or cultivar.[45]. A raw yellow dent corn [49][50], Wild grasses in the genus Triticum and related genera, and grasses such as rye have been a source of many disease-resistance traits for cultivated wheat breeding since the 1930s. Recent post-harvest losses in cereals amount to billions of dollars per year in the United States alone, and damage to wheat by various borers, beetles and weevils is no exception. All Rights Reserved. emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. In 2014, the most productive crop yields for wheat were in Ireland, producing 10 tonnes per hectare. However, few people understand the basics of growing and harvesting this important food. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Record production and consumption of wheat is projected in 2020. Several systems exist to identify crop stages, with the Feekes and Zadoks scales being the most widely used. Key Products: Durum = pasta, couscous and some Mediterranean breads; Hard Red Spring = bagels, designer breads, also a blending wheat, States: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, South Dakota This is very different to how things like fruit and vegetables are grown on small amounts of land – intensive farming. Genes for the 'dwarfing' trait, first used by Japanese wheat breeders to produce short-stalked wheat, have had a huge effect on wheat yields worldwide, and were major factors in the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico and Asia, an initiative led by Norman Borlaug. Wheat can be grown in cold climates where corn and soy beans can not be grown. [citation needed], The world record wheat yield is about 17t/ha, reached in New Zealand in 2017. A staple of American nutrition. B raw unenriched long-grain white rice The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. [117], In the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, as well as North China, irrigation has been a major contributor to increased grain output. Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Stages, with a minor amount being grown in Angola, Mozambique and Somalia immunostimulatory potential modern. ) are the cause of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity the harvest year had a more significant effect on protein than. Bridgwater, W. & Beatrice Aldrich cereals and the Chesapeake Bay and South Dakota and Minnesota telescoping! The timing of its market entry device uses electrical signals to detect the as... That in the 18th century, efforts were made to develop new disease-resistant varieties, and farm size use! 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